Faraday Kafesi Nedir ?
Faraday Kafesi hakkında merak ettikleriniz bu yazıda…
Faraday Kafesi 1836 yılında İngiliz bilim insanı Michael Faraday, yüklü iletkenin fazla yükünün sadece iletkenin dışında bulunduğunu ve iletkenin içindeki maddeyi etkilemediğini gözlemledi.
Bu olayı ispatlamak için metal folyo ile kaplı bir oda (kafes) yarattı. Bu oda elektrostatik jeneratörle üretilen yüklerin etkisini nötrleyebiliyordu.
Kafesin çalışma prensibi şu şekildedir :
Elektromanyetik alan varlığından etkilenen kafeste pozitif ve negatif yük dağılımı oluşur. Mesela kafese pozitif (+) yük sağdan yaklaştırıldığında kafesin sağ tarafında negatif (-) yükler toplanır, bu şekilde kafes zıt elektromanyetik alan yaratmış olur. Bu şekilde iki alan birbirlerini nötrler.
Uçaklara yıldırım düştüğünde ne olacağı konusunda sorular duyuyor veya soruyor olabilirsiniz. Artık bunun cevabını basitçe bu yazıda açıkladığımız gibi “Faraday Kafesi” üzerinden düşünebilirsiniz.
Faraday kafesinin en yaygın kullanım alanı yıldırımdan korunmadır. Yıldırım esnasında araba içinde, uçak içinde veya iletken ile kaplı bir yerdeyseniz bir Faraday Kafesi içinde olduğunuzdan dolayı korunma altında olursunuz.
Şunu da belirtmemiz gerekir ki arabanın motorunu kapatıp içeride bekleyip yıldırımlar bitene kadar motoru açmamanız gereklidir.
AC (Alternatif Akım) elektrik alan değişimlerine sebep olabilir, bu sebeple hassas devre elemanları da Faraday Kafesi yöntemi ile korunur.
Bunların yanı sıra gizlilik için de Faraday Kafesi kullanılabilir. Faraday Kafesi içine elektrik alan girmediğinden kafes içindeki cep telefonu, telsiz gibi cihazlar çalışmaz.
Faraday Kafesinin Kullanım Alanları :
- Yanıcı, patlayıcı ve parlayıcı maddelerin depolandığı binalar: Bu tür binaların dış tarafı kafes şeklinde kaplanır. Binanın dışındaki yüksek noktalara yıldırım yakalama uçları yerleştirilir. Bütün iletkenler ve yakalama uçları birbiriyle bağlanır ve topraklanır. Bu şekilde eş potansiyel sistem sağlanmış olur.
- Radyo frekansı yayan cihazlar: Bu tip cihazların konduğu kabinler cihaz çevreye parazit radyo sinyalleri yaymasın diye dış metal kılıfından topraklanır.
- Telsizle haberleşmenin yapıldığı binalar: Bina içindeki telsiz haberleşme sinyallerinin dışarıya sızmasını ve dinlenmesini önlemek için bina dışına Faraday Kafesi inşa edilir. Binada telsiz haberleşmesi yapılmasa bile, CRT monitörler görüntüyü zayıf bir radyo dalgası olarak yaydığı için uzaktaki bir monitördeki görüntüyü, sinyali yakalayıp kuvvetlendirerek tekrar oluşturmak mümkündür. Binalarda tavanda demir lamalar ile örülmüş hatlar olarak yapılmıştır. Duvarlarda bu şekilde demirler olmadığı için baz istasyonları binaların üzerinde sağlık açısından büyük bir tehlike arz etmektedir.
- Elektronik kartlarda bulunan radyo frekans modülleri ;
Radyo-televizyon tuneri, GSM alıcı verici devreleri gibi radyo frekans amaçlı modüller veya elektronik devre bölümleri, sac bir kapakla kapatılıp topraklanarak elektronik karta ve çalıştığı ortama bozucu sinyaller yayması engellenir. EMC (Elektromanyetik Uyumluluk) yönetmeliğine göre bu tip önlemleri almak mecburidir. Elektrikli cihazların gerek radyo sinyali olarak gerekse iletken hatlar üzerinden parazitler yaymasına müsaade edilmez.
46 thoughts on “Faraday Kafesi Nedir ?”
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